Guangzhou is a famous cultural city with more than 2210 years of history, and is one of the 62 national historical and cultural cities promulgated by the State Council. According to historical records, in the 9th century B.C. during the Zhou Dynasty, the people of Baiyue and the people of Chu in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River had exchanges and built the "Chu Ting" to commemorate this friendship, which is the earliest name of Guangzhou.
In 214 B.C. (the thirty-third year of Qin Shi Huang), Qin Shi Huang unified Lingnan and established three counties in Lingnan, namely Nanhai, Guilin and Xiang, with counties underneath. Among them, Nanhai County has jurisdiction over Panyu, Longchuan and other four counties.
Nanhai County, the seat of political and military institutions, was located here, then called Fan Yu, and built a city here, this is the year Guangzhou was built. In 226 A.D. (Wu Huangwu five years), Sun Quan of Eastern Wu from the original Jiaocheng divided Nanhai, Cangwu and other four counties, the new set of Guangzhou, because the state was originally in Guangxin (now Wuzhou, Fengkai area), the name of Guangzhou from the word "Guang" of Guangxin. After the partition of Jiaoguang, the state government of Guangzhou was moved to Panyu, from which the name Guangzhou was derived.
1. Geographical Location Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong Province, the political, economic, scientific, educational and cultural center, and the largest seaside city in southern China.
Guangzhou is located at longitude 113°17'E and latitude 23°8'N, in the south of mainland China, south-central Guangdong Province and the northern edge of the Pearl River Delta. Bordering on the South China Sea and adjacent to the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions, Guangzhou is the southern gate of China to the world. Guangzhou is a hilly area. The topography is high in the northeast and low in the southwest, with mountainous areas in the north and northeast, hills and terraces in the middle, and the alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta in the south. The Pearl River, the third largest river in China, flows through the center of Guangzhou.
2. Four Seasons Climate
Guangzhou is located in the subtropical zone, straddling the Tropic of Cancer, with an average annual temperature of 20-22°C, with a minimum temperature of about 0°C and a maximum temperature of 38°C. The climate is pleasant, and it is one of the largest cities in China with the smallest average annual temperature difference. Guangzhou has a subtropical monsoon climate, which is characterized by warm and rainy, abundant light and heat, long summers and short frost periods due to its backdrop of mountains and sea. It is hot and watery all year round with abundant rainfall, which is conducive to plant growth and provides excellent conditions for Guangzhou, the "City of Flowers", which is always green and full of flowers in all seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1982.7 mm and the average relative humidity is 77%. Throughout the year, the rainy season is from April to June, the weather from August to September is hot and typhoon prone, and the temperature from October to December is moderate, making it the best season for tourism.
3. Area, administrative divisions and population
The total area of Guangzhou is 7434.4 square kilometers, of which, the area of 10 districts under the jurisdiction of the city is 3718.5 square kilometers, accounting for 50.02% of the total area of the city; the area of 2 county-level cities is 3715.9 square kilometers, accounting for 49.98%.
In 2005, approved by the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the State Council, the former 10 districts and 2 cities of Guangzhou: Yuexiu District, Dongshan District, Haizhu District, Liwan District, Tianhe District, Baiyun District, Huangpu District, Fangcun District, Huadu District, Panyu District, and two county-level cities, Conghua City and Zengcheng City, in which Yuexiu District and Dongshan District were merged into Yuexiu District; Liwan District and Fangcun District were merged into Nansha District; Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was changed to Luogang District; Nansha Economic and Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was changed to Luogang District; Nansha Economic and Technological Development Zone was changed to Nansha District.
The new Guangzhou 10 districts and 2 cities: Yuexiu District, Haizhu District, Liwan District, Tianhe District, Baiyun District, Huangpu District, Huadu District, Panyu District, Luogang District, Nansha District, and two county-level cities, Conghua City and Zengcheng City. The number of resident households in Guangzhou is about 7.2 million.
4. History and Culture
Guangzhou is a famous cultural city with a long history of more than 2,210 years, and is one of the first batch of historical and cultural cities promulgated by the State Council. During the long history, many famous monuments such as the Tomb of King Nan Yue, Guangxiao Temple, Zhenhai Building, Liurong Temple, Nanhai Temple, Wuxian Guan, Huaisheng Temple, Chen Family Ancestral Hall, Sacred Heart Hall, Sanyuan Palace, etc. are the testimony of Guangzhou's famous historical and cultural city.
Guangzhou, blending the essence of Chinese and foreign cultures, has formed a unique Lingnan culture. The Lingnan school of painting, Lingnan architecture, Lingnan gardens, Lingnan bonsai, Cantonese music, Cantonese opera, Cantonese cuisine, Cantonese language, as well as urban landscape and living customs, all reflect the style of Lingnan culture.
5. History of Foreign Interaction
Guangzhou has a long history of foreign relations. During the Qin and Han dynasties (about 226 B.C.-220 A.D.), Guangzhou, as the starting port of the ancient maritime "Silk Road", had frequent interactions with overseas. Chinese silk, porcelain, iron, copper, paper, gold and silver were shipped overseas from Guangzhou in exchange for jewelry, incense, ivory, rhinoceros horn, etc. Guangzhou became the most famous trading port in the world at that time. By the Yuan Dynasty (about 1206-1368 A.D.), more than 140 countries and regions in the world had trade relations with Guangzhou. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Guangzhou had an "Export Commodity Fair". In the Qing Dynasty (1757), the Qing government implemented the "one port of commerce" for a period of time, and Guangzhou became the only port for foreign trade, and foreign exchanges became more frequent. The prosperity of foreign trade also promoted the cultural exchange between Guangzhou and overseas.
6. International Friendship Cities
Since the reform and opening up (1979), Guangzhou has concluded friendship city relations with 14 international cities around the world. At present, Guangzhou has become a full member city of the World Metropolis Association.
Guangzhou is the center of air, sea and land transportation in South China.
It can be used to pay for buses, cabs, subways, ferries, etc. Guangzhou Metro offers a 10% discount on one-way fares for Yang Cheng Tong users. The Yang Cheng Tong can also be used at certain supermarkets, fast food restaurants and all 7-11 convenience stores, similar to the Octopus in Hong Kong.
Beginning May 1, 2004, Guangzhou City banned motorcycles in the city in three phases. In the first phase, from May 1, 2004, motorcycles were banned in some sections of the central city except during rush hours; in the second phase, from January 1, 2006, motorcycles were banned 24 hours a day on Dongfeng Road, Jiefang Road, Renmin Road and other main roads in the central city; in the third phase, from January 1, 2007, motorcycles were completely banned 24 hours a day within the central city. In addition, electric bicycles are also banned from being licensed and driven.
Guangzhou Port, the third largest port in China, is the main material distribution center and the largest international trade hub port in the Pearl River Delta as well as South China, and now has trade with more than 500 ports in more than 170 countries and regions in the world, with an annual cargo throughput of 167 million tons.
Huangpu New Port and Xinsha Port are located in the east of Guangzhou and at the mouth of the Pearl River, both of which are the largest container terminals in South China.
Lotus Hill Port, Nansha Port, Guangzhou Development Zone Suigang Port and Zengcheng Xintang Port have opened passenger and cargo ships to and from Hong Kong, and Huadu District has opened cargo ships to and from Hong Kong.
Inland rivers can communicate with all parts of Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province along the East, West and North rivers waterways, and are connected with more than 100 rivers.
7.2. Land Transportation
Railroads include the Beijing-Guangzhou duplicated line, the Guang-Mao line, the Guang-Mei-Shan line, the Guang-Shen line, the Guangzhou-Kowloon quasi-high-speed railroad, and the Guangzhou-Zhuhai-Macao railroad and the Wuhan-Guangzhou passenger special line under construction, which constitute a well-connected railroad network.
Road transportation has basically formed a road network centered on the urban area, with National Highway 105, 106, 107, 324 and 205 as the skeleton, and three ring roads as the ties, connecting various national highways, passing through more than 97% of the counties, cities and towns in Guangdong Province, and connecting with neighboring provinces and cities. City transportation facilities and highway construction is developing rapidly. At present, the city's rapid traffic skeleton network has been initially built: Inner Ring Road, City Ring Expressway, North Second Ring Expressway, New International Airport Expressway, the first phase of South China Road, East Guangyuan Road and four inner ring road radial lines.
The average daily passenger volume of Guangzhou urban public transport reaches 4.81 million. A total of seven lines of rapid rail network is planned, of which Metro Line 1, Line 2 and the special line of University City in Line 4 have been put into operation; Line 3 is expected to be opened at the end of 2006, and Line 4 is expected to be opened for the Xinzao-Huangge section.
7.3. Air transport
Guangzhou Baiyun Airport is one of the three major international airports in China, with the highest passenger throughput in China. Guangzhou New Baiyun International Airport is a key construction project during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period of China, and will be the largest, most advanced and modernized national hub airport in China. It is planned to have a passenger throughput of 25 million passengers and a cargo throughput of 1 million tons by 2010.
8. Economic Overview
Since the reform and opening up, Guangzhou has made remarkable achievements in economic construction. Over the past 20 years, the city's national economy has been growing at an average annual rate of more than 14%, and the GDP has exceeded 300 billion RMB, and the per capita GDP has exceeded 5000 USD, making Guangzhou a leading city in China in terms of comprehensive economic strength. Guangzhou has become a central city with a strong industrial base, a developed tertiary industry, and a comprehensive and coordinated development of the national economy.
Guangzhou's agriculture is based on "high quality, high yield and high efficiency" and "specialization, commercialization and socialization". The agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, vice and fishery industries are developing comprehensively, and the township enterprises are also developing rapidly, becoming the pillar of the rural economy. Guangzhou agriculture is transforming into modern urban agriculture.
Guangzhou is an important industrial base in China and a comprehensive industrial manufacturing center in South China. Over the years, it has formed a modern export-oriented industrial system with a complete range of industries, a relatively developed light industry, a certain foundation for heavy industry, a comprehensive supporting capability, a strong scientific research and technological capability, and a strong product development capability. Guangzhou has 34 of the 40 industrial industries in the country. Guangzhou industry occupies an important position in the city's national economy, with industrial added value accounting for more than 1/3 of the city's GDP. the industrial output value of the three pillar industries of automobile manufacturing, electronic communications and petrochemicals accounts for about 1/3 of the city's total industrial output value. with the introduction of advanced technology, traditional industries such as light textile, food, medicine and building materials have been upgraded and replaced, with electronic communications, home appliances, fine chemicals, petrochemicals and other industries leading the way, With the introduction of advanced technology, traditional industries such as light textile, food, medicine and building materials have been upgraded and replaced, and many new industries and high-tech industries led by electronic communication, household appliances, fine chemicals and petrochemicals have developed rapidly. Guangzhou industry has obvious comparative advantages in the Pearl River Delta, South China and even Southeast Asia.
8.3. Foreign Trade
As the earliest port for foreign trade in China, Guangzhou has a long history and occupies a rather important position in the world. The world-renowned China Export Commodities Fair ("Canton Fair") has been held in Guangzhou since the 1950s, and has been honored with the title of "China's No. 1 Fair" for its largest scale, longest duration, highest grade and highest volume of transactions. The newly built Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center, the venue of Canton Fair, will elevate the "China's No. 1 Fair" to the level of a world-class fair.
Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center is the second largest convention and exhibition center in the world and the largest in Asia. Its total land area is 700,000 square meters, of which the first phase has a land area of about 439,000 square meters and a total construction area of about 395,000 square meters. It is a multi-functional, comprehensive and high-standard international conference and exhibition center that can meet the needs of international commodity fairs, large-scale trade exhibitions and large-scale international conferences.
Guangzhou has a large number of commercial outlets, complete industries, wide radiation, flexible information and smooth circulation channels. The city has more than 100,000 commercial outlets, which is the top ten cities in China. Large shopping malls, large warehouse-type wholesale and retail self-service shopping malls, lighted night markets and marketplaces constitute a diversified market network.
Guangzhou's tourism industry has a multi-functional, multi-level and all-round service pattern integrating tourism, food, accommodation, shopping and entertainment. Numerous cultural relics, scenic spots and humanistic landscapes make visitors linger for a long time. Cantonese cuisine and various Chinese and foreign flavors of food and drink in color, aroma, taste and shape bring Guangzhou the name of "Food in Guangzhou". There are many five-star hotels and many hotels and inns of different grades. The "Guangzhou one-day tour" has become a special brand of Guangzhou tourism.
8.6. Financial and Insurance Industry
Guangzhou is one of the three major financial centers in China, with an active financial market. It is the central city with the strongest financing capacity in South China, and the second batch of cities with liberalized access to foreign banks. The development of financial institutions is rapid and complete; the pace of financial opening to the outside world is accelerating, and the number of foreign financial institutions is gradually increasing; the scale of financial business is expanding and the level of financial services is improving; the capacity of capital is expanding and the types are increasing. At present, foreign financial institutions have set up more than 30 branches and offices in Guangzhou; foreign insurance institutions have set up more than 10 branches and offices in Guangzhou.
The People's Bank of China has set up Guangzhou branch in Guangzhou.
8.7. Real Estate Industry
The comprehensive development of Guangzhou's real estate industry (including residential, commercial buildings and office buildings) is among the highest in China. The investment in real estate development has been growing continuously, rapidly and steadily; the sources of funds for real estate development investment are relatively sufficient and the degree of marketization is high; over the years, the municipal government has continued to invest intensively in urban infrastructure construction, and various residential and living facilities are becoming more and more perfect, which makes the development structure of the real estate industry in Guangzhou more reasonable.
8.8. Telecommunications Industry
Guangzhou is the information center of South China and has a relatively complete information infrastructure. It is one of the three major outlets for long-distance telecommunication services in China, as well as one of the three core nodes and international outlets of the national Internet, and one of the three major exchange centers of the national Internet. At present, Guangzhou City has built a high quality broadband information network with high bandwidth, city-wide coverage, reliability and security, advanced technology and a full range of services, basically realized the laying of optical fiber to the community and some commercial buildings, and established a broadband data, interactive video and other service platforms. Guangzhou City ranks first among the provincial capitals in China in terms of telephone programmed, local telephone and cell phone penetration rates.
Guangzhou is the location of Guangzhou Military Region, an important military base in South China.
Guangzhou has the largest number of colleges and universities in South China, with Sun Yat-sen University, South China University of Technology and other famous universities located in Guangzhou.
Guangzhou has a civilization history of more than 4,000 years. During the Neolithic Age, the "Baiyue" people created the Lingnan culture in the Lingnan area. In the thirty-third year of Qin Shi Huang (214 BC), Qin unified Lingnan and established Nanhai County, which was governed by Panyu and had 4 counties. It has been 2,213 years since the county lieutenant Renqi built "Renqi City". In 206 BC, Zhao Tuo established the State of South Vietnam and built Zhao Tuo City with a circumference of 10 miles. In the sixth year of Emperor Wu's Yuan Ding (111 BC), the Han Dynasty pacified the state of South Vietnam and divided the land into nine counties, including Nanhai, which was ruled in Panyu. Wu Huangwu five years (226 years ago), Sun Quan established the two states of Jiao and Guang, south of Hepu for Jiaozhou, north of Guangzhou, the name of Guangzhou. In the third year of Zhengming of Later Liang (917), Liu High, a Qing naval envoy, established the Great Yue State in Guangzhou, and the state was named Han, which was called Southern Han. On February 15, 1921, Guangzhou City Hall was established and Sun Ke was the first mayor of Guangzhou. On October 21, 1938, the Japanese army occupied Guangzhou, starting a 7-year period of fall, and on October 14, 1949, Guangzhou was liberated, and on October 28, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Government was established, with Ye Jianying as mayor, and in 1954, the Central Government decided to abolish the six administrative regions of North China, Northeast China, Northwest China, East China, Central South and Southwest China, and Guangzhou was put under the leadership of Guangdong Province. On September 20, 1960, Guangzhou City began to implement the administrative system of "municipal administration of counties".
Guangzhou was known as "Chuting" in the ancient times. According to historical records, as early as the 9th century B.C. during the Zhou Dynasty, the "Baiyue tribe" living here had close relations with the Chu people in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the locals commemorated this friendship with the name "Chuting". "This is the earliest name of Guangzhou.
In ancient times, Guangzhou was the capital of three dynasties: Zhao Tuo established the South Yue Kingdom in Guangzhou at the beginning of the Han Dynasty; during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the "South Han Kingdom" was established here; in addition, the "South Ming" dynasty mentioned in the literary masterpiece "The Peach Blossom Fan" (built at the end of the Ming Dynasty, the regime lasted only 40 It was also the capital of the "Southern Ming" dynasty (founded at the end of the Ming Dynasty, which lasted only 40 days) mentioned in the literary novel "The Peach Blossom Fan". Guangzhou is a modern metropolis, full of vitality and retaining its ancient style. It is one of the first 24 historical and cultural cities in China announced by the State Council, and it is also an excellent tourist city. It is a place with clear mountains and beautiful water and scenery, where natural and humanistic landscapes complement each other, and the city style is set off by the modern urban landscape.
Guangzhou was once a tropical and subtropical forest in the distant past, and today it is still a kingdom of plants. The South China Botanical Garden, Pantai Garden, Liuhua Lake Park, People's Park, Luhu Park and Dongshan Lake Park fully demonstrate the gardening characteristics of the South. The suburbs of the city also include Conghua Hot Spring Scenic Area, Conghua Liuxi River National Forest Park, Furong Roach Scenic Area and so on.
The main local humanities include the Tomb of the South Vietnamese King, Zhenhai Building, Xiguan Grand House, the former site of the anti-British struggle in Sanyuanli, the former site of Whampoa Military Academy, and Zhongshan Memorial Hall, which can be used by future generations to remember the heroic deeds of their ancestors.
Guangzhou Important Data
Location: Located in the south of mainland China, in the middle of Guangdong Province, at the northern edge of the Pearl River Delta. It is bordered by the South China Sea, with Baiyun Mountain at its back, and the Pearl River running through the city, where the Dongjiang, Xijiang and Beijiang - the three major tributaries of the Pearl River - converge and flow into the South China Sea.
Area: total area of 7434.4 square kilometers, of which 1443 square kilometers is urban area.
Districts: Yuexiu District, Haizhu District, Liwan District, Tianhe District, Baiyun District, Huangpu District, Nansha District, Luogang District, Panyu District, Huadu District, Conghua City, Zengcheng City.
City flower: red cotton
City tree: cottonwood
City bird: painted eyebrow
Area code: 020
Zip code: 510000
Landscape: Baiyun Mountain, Yuexiu Park, etc.
Baiyun Mountain South China Botanical Garden Luhu Park Luogang Scenic Area Yundai Garden Sanyuanli Old Site of Anti-British Struggle
Guangxiao Temple Stone Room Sacred Heart Cathedral Yuexiu Park (Yuexiu Mountain) Zhenhai Building Liuhua Lake Park Lanpu
West Han Dynasty South Yue King Museum Sanyuan Palace Guangdong Provincial Museum Guangzhou Uprising Martyrs' Cemetery Guangzhou Cultural Park Zhongshan Memorial Hall
Wuxianguan Former site of the First National Congress of the Kuomintang Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs of Huanghuagang Guangzhou Peasant Movement Seminar Site Guangzhou Zoo Xiangjiang Wildlife World Lotus Hill